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the mining of 'panna' or emerald has been dated back to more than 3000 years, during the time of the ancient egyptians and the inca empire. fine quality emeralds were highly valued in the courts of europe and the spanish explorers went on a bloody campaign to find the location of the emerald mines in south america.

today columbia, brazil and zambia produce large quantities of fine emeralds. however, clombian emeralds are still considered to be of the highest quality. very fine emeralds are also mined in india, pakistan and zimbabwe, but these are extremely rare.

emeralds are made of the base mineral beryl, with minute traces of chromium and vanadium giving the intense green colour. colombian emeralds are known for their uniform vivid green colour. it is rare to find emeralds of fine quality and clarity over one carat in size, as almost all emeralds contain eye-visible inclusions.

emeralds are quite durable with hardness close to 8 on the moh's scale, but are sometimes prone to get fractured. as with all gemstones, intensity and uniformity of colour, clarity and lusture are the factors used to determine the price of emeralds. however, since in emeralds it is extremely rare to find clear gems, the clarity and lack of visible inclusions are given more weightage while determining the price.


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